Profit Games Selling and Finance Diploma

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Course design - Teacher's guide

Lesson plans

Support the activity of the students
A teacher does not need any other prior knowledge of the program than having gone through the chosen practice or game to know what it is about and what to emphasize. 

1. Collective going through
The teacher selects a practice. The students follow the teacher's computer in an overhead projector, smart board or similar on a large screen. Practices consist of three to four parts. After each part the teacher saves what is done to continue later. Decisions and questions in each part are displayed in steps. All students are discussing. Sometimes it can be a need for division into groups so that the best do not take over.

Each step is analyzed and debated. The teacher supplements with questions for discussion. The students decide what responses or decisions to make and why. When everyone has decided, the teacher click an answer or a decision button, for example the easiest to "Confirm", after that all have views on the consequences. The result is displayed instantly. If the answer was wrong, you will discuss why.
Joint review business economics & administration
In practices and games many questions are included. With the question often a report/calculation follows with a link, Facts, to an instructive text.  Search in that by means of the search function (Ctrl/cmd + F) for the key words in the question. There is also a business Dictionary to at need understand words and terms. In addition, by each other. Knowledge is obtained in just right portions. Color and shape is an important theme throughout to facilitate the understanding of the context.

Practice sheet. When going through any of the three practices on the Basic level, write each newly added figure on a practice sheet where it should belong, at each step before answer appears. It is advantageous to add manual exercises. There is a link to a "Practice Sheet for updating the BR and RR" that can be printed (in Facts to these reports).

2. Separate exercises
Then the students do the same practice with a login of their own to take a Financial Management Diploma. They can do it at their own pace in cooperation or singly with more time for reflection. The time of carrying through is individual. They make decisions and get immediate feedback. Lasting knowledge builds on seeing and understanding how the parts and the whole interact and give support and meaning to each other.
Individual exercises business economics & administration
Business games in group 3. Business game
In part three they take a Selling and Finance Diploma in a business game at the same level as the practices etc. At first, the whole class can run the game collectively, or the first period, under the teacher's guidance as in point 1. In the games the decisions are displayed randomly. The students can play separatein groups, two or three together, in a communicative process. Or drive the business with reflection on one's own. Different learning styles can be used.

When a Business Game is undertaken by several groups or individuals in a classroom, the teacher can sometimes determine that everybody is to save and their graphic Balance Sheets are compared in order to determine which office each should select the immediate future, e.g. those who have too much receivables and short term debts should go to the financial office or too little inventory go to purchase.

Practice sheet: If they are drawn on a larger paper, colored pencils as blue, yellow, green and red are useful. Cash (silver) and Equity (gold) can be left unstained. There is a link to a "Practice Sheet for drawing a graphic BR" that can be printed as a basis for the color scheme (under the Facts of the reports). It is advantageous to add manual exercises.

Let the students answer their own questions. The students are responsible for their learning building on practice, repetition and reflection. Teachers and educational media support them by their teaching. Follow up that they take care of their learning in cooperation or on one's own. Do not be tempted as a teacher to help too much or too quick. The participants should seek and get knowledge with the support that is given in the courses as Facts with the search function, a business Dictionary and from one another.  Some questions the teacher may need to address before all and make summaries.

By delegating to the students time is released and the teacher has more time for support and education. It is time saving for the students too with more effective learning in moderate portions. The shortcut to effectual learning lies in shaping an early overall view. The participants can put their own experience in a consistency. All that happens is summed up and related to comprehensive pictures.

Proposals to more lesson plans are available under "Guides"after log in. A teacher can book freely for one session, select one practice at a time.

Course strategies

The brain systems and the pedagogy

What the teacher wants to convey and what a student learns is unfortunately not always the same. During later decades there has been much research about the brain's functions, with results that are crucial in the development of educational solutions.

Within economic psychology Daniel Kahneman, awarded the 2002 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics, as an example speaks in terms of that the brain has two systems:<
Communicate Business economics & administration

 - System 1 is always going acting on intuition according to innate and learned patterns. It is quick, intuitive and controlled by emotions. It receives all the information we encounter and it can not be turned off.

- System 2 is called in when a capacity for thinking and extra effort is demanded. It has the ability to do calculations, see alternative consequences and is needed to make good decisions. It is difficult to start, is slow and can easily be shut off. It can only process a limited amount of information at a time. If System 2 gets too much information or too complicated (information overload), it is shut off and goes to rest.

Building understanding

Thus the information should be well organized and dispensed in moderate doses. As the targets of a course are attained through varying, meaningful and relevant questions, tasks and decisions, they should be clearly distinguishable and not overcomplicated to avoid information overload. 

Immediate feedback

Immediate feedback after each single issue and decision is a prerequisite of being able to correct thoughts and knowledge. Adequate training with fast and clear feedback is a prerequisite of developing skills and intuitive judgments. Therefore, on the way to a Selling & Finance Diploma you are confronted with events, adventures, decisions, tasks, quizzes and feedback in right doses. You solve problems and get immediate response in report pictures which visualize and put your experience into its context and financial interrelationships which books with exercises cannot do.

OS! This is not fulfilled in common business games where you compete in a market by changing a number of parameters/decisions lumped together, the effects of which are not separated and therefore preclude conclusions. If the individual effects would appear, the game is revealed and becomes meaningless.

Communicate finance

Controlling economy is much about measuring, evaluating and aggregating information in e.g. key figures. That is then passed out into the operations to create the necessary change. There they are usually not familiar with the financial concepts and get easily information overload in the System 2 of the brain. On the other hand they have a great detailed knowledge of their reality. It is therefore necessary to create an understanding of how the operative details are associated with the aggregated economic concepts.

It's the same at school. If the student does not have built up an understanding by means of a structure into which information can be sorted, information overload can occur. System 2 takes a time out.

Audio and text

If text and audio are presented simultaneously the sight reacts first. The eye want first to obtain an overview and some detailed knowledge. It is an advantage if the sound comes in only when the eye had its day. That is why the audio files do not start automatically more than as an exception. But it is the student who start every audio file in factual texts and decision bases etc.


The cerebral cortex is divided into the left and right brain with different but interacting functions.
- The left brain takes care of among others the basic skills of speaking, reading, writing and arithmetic. It breaks down and analyzes problems and stands for critical and analytical thinking.
- The right brain on the other side can work in pictures, where the details from the left are assembled in structures and given context and meaning sometimes in a new and creative way. The right part builds up the data from the left part into meaningful pictures and patterns and stands for conceptual thinking.


Understanding the whole and basic structure Therefore, practices and games are based on an intercommunion between the features and the whole structure, between the parts and the whole in order to provide coherence. In finance the income statement and balance sheet are the starting structure to begin to understand other reports, key ratios, profitability charts, cash flow, analyses, etc. and that are divided into different calculation models.
As early as possible you see and perceive the fundamental patterns and structures of finance before further experiences and creative solutions. It is a well known educational paradox that you must have knowledge to gain further knowledge.
Understanding context It is about designing experiences that are well organized and dispensed in just right doses not to overload the brain. Colour and shape is a recurring theme to facilitate the understanding of how your behaviour affects the business.
You see ongoing how the greater context and the big pictures are related to the level of details, as the calculations and implications of your own decisions.
Understand the details in context Detailed knowledge should continuously be directly related to its greater context, which books can't do. You get no lasting knowledge if you don't understand how the parts and the whole interact and give support and meaning to each other.
Mnemonics is about having simple memory cells and structures to put information into to be able to become knowledge. As soon as possible you must begin building the structure on which you can hang up and sort new information.

The brain structure and the pedagogy

The brain can consume a quarter of our calorie consumption and almost half of our oxygen needs and has three levels. The first two make a big part of System 1 above:
1. Crocodile Brain,
2. Mid-brain and
3. New brain (neocortex, cerebral cortex). In humans the new brain is especially developed. It is divided into the left and right brain.

Brainlevels Viking

How these three levels and two cerebral hemispheres cooperate affects the learning

1. The Crocodile Brain controls our five senses. It is therefore always hitched to receive our sensory impressions. It determines whether to fight or flight, ie. the survival instinct. In danger strong feelings are produced and quick physical activity. Otherwise, it responds to things that arouses curiosity. The decisions ability is limited and is primarily about self-preservation, food requirements, territorial thinking and reproduction. All what constitutes a danger, arouses curiosity or can give goal achievement and attainment leads to activity. Other things are ignored.

When a teacher conveys knowledge the teacher uses the new brain (3.Neocortex). But the learner receives with the senses in the reptilian brain, which makes a first thinning. What arouses curiosity and goal fulfillment is sent on to the mid-brain.

2. The Mid-brain is developed in mammals, among other things to manage social relationships as living in packs or taking care of their young (a reptile does not respond if someone eats its offspring). The mid-brain is something of the brain's social medium. The individual who the reptilian brain at first sight may experience as a danger leading to flight, the mid-brain can make a better assessment of and realize that it is a good friend.

These two levels are the more primitive part of the brain where much of human activity is going on. Entertainment, movie, games and popular culture for the masses appeal to these levels. For example popular computer games for children and young people. Not the least games, where you have to shoot quickly to survive, trigger the reptilian brain, using the mid-brain to distinguish between friend and foe. The primitive brain can mobilize strong emotions effortlessly.

3. The Neocortex, containing System 2 and the learned patterns of System 1, constitutes the main part of the human brain and allows for the higher intellectual abilities which distinguish humans from other mammals. Getting a learner to meet effort and move from lower brain levels and comfort zones to higher levels place some demands. A fundamental prerequisite is that the learning situation is calm and safe. If students in a classroom experience aggression, threat, danger or fear the reptilian brain is triggered and it becomes difficult to move to the cerebral levels where learning takes place.

System 1 is always running and deals with a continuous stream of information according to innate and learned routines. System 2 is switched on only when an extra effort is required. System 2 can handle only limited information, otherwise it will be overloaded. In a learning situation the information should be well organized and dispensed in smaller doses. It is about designing experiences.

Reward and commitment

To find the pleasure and innate need, that athletes and musicians can find in their practices, is a way to success. What distinguishes the masters, from those who are good, are exercises, exercises again and in another word repetiton especially when the exercises involve some effort. Pupils possess their learning. (According to the PISA expertise pupils in many western countries set too low demands on themselves and give up too easily in comparison to those in many asian countries.)
New knowledge means that new neural pathways and nodes are created in the cerebral cortex. Recurrent mental and physical effort, reflection and repetition constantly reshape the brain and increase the skills, knowledge, intelligence and creativity. Practice and repetition are crucial, especially when being directed towards understanding patterns and connections, new research has shown. BrainSynapses
A committed state is when the attention and efforts are fully occupied and have a clear focus and target. The activity in itself is experienced as a reward. It's when you both want to do it and like doing it. How to achieve both of these conditions?

Targets, goals and purpose

Activity and effort is normally perceived as more positive than passivity and inactivity. Challenges involves a positive effort that not only leads to learning but also increases the intelligence in the long term. But these challenges should be in line with the learner's own goals and motivations, as to learn, teach others, help others, get higher knowledge or skill, mark, grade, exam, status, money or something else.

Pupils should know their motivations and what gets them to be obsessed by a task and be better at something. It is an advantage if the teacher is aware of these and can motivate each student based on their special innate needs.

Educational games, which are to develop the new upper part of the brain, the cerebral cortex, need to facilitate the greater demands on motivation and engagement. There should be goals at different levels and enough many levels, so that those who want can go far and become masters / experts.

In effect life is much about money and economy. But the student can still make clear: Why am I learning this? Does it help me to manage myself better in the world I am? Can it help me to reach the goals and objectives that are important to me?  

Do you have to know business economics?

Daniel Kahneman, mentioned above, has in his book "Thinking, Fast and Slow" reported on his and others' research on thinking and economic decision making. Among others he goes into the importance of an optimistic disposition especially when starting and running businesses. Optimism is the engine of capitalism and optimistic people are often more successful and happier. But they fall often deepest because of overconfidence in themselves.

In this context, two Swedish bankruptcy trustees issued a report based on the experiences of the 1980s, which was one long boom. (Robert Neufeld, Peter Smedman: "Full speed towards insolvency: reading book for entrepreneurs and start-up candidates about overconfidence..."). Despite the good times businesses went bankrupt. Major reasons were the lack of self-knowledge, insight into entrepreneurship, knowledge of business economics and financial connections.

The mission of ProfitGames is therefore to contribute to a better knowledge for a better world by a more than twice as effective learning of business economics and financial connections around web-based practices, games and simulations. By the same reason the teachers in business economics contribute to a better future.

The mission of the Financial Management Diploma is to contribute to a better knowledge for a better world through that students learn business economics twice as effective around the web-based exercises, games and simulations.

How much do you have to know?

Daniel Kahneman describes research which indicates that those who know more make better judgments, than those who know less up to a certain level. As knowledge of business economics and financial connections is very important for all, what courses do you need to go? All benefit from the basic level. Business owners and those who work professionally also need the other levels. If the student really learns what the full curriculum provides, the student has come a long way. From a practical point of view more theory has a diminishing marginal utility. However, the experience, that you gain by using the knowledge at work or at a university, provides a high marginal utility (up to a point where you begin to overestimate yourself). As well as supplementing with other skills within the field you are active.

We are planning to add an Expert level for those who want a usable education that is more complete. If you have opinions, send an e-mail.

Expert level
- Cash flow analysis II.
- Return and Profitability II.
- Investment and capital requirements II.
- Profit control in Service industries.
- Profit control in Manufacturing.
- Selling and Finance Diploma in a Business game Expert.

The Expert level means specialization in primarily cost, cash and revenue analysis.

The road to success

No matter what an organization produces or a person is working with, according to Kahneman, they are factories making judgments and decisions thousands per day. The road to success means that this process is constantly improved by your examining its different stages from needs, problems and analysis of decision alternatives to decision, carrying through and follow-up. The courses are about that and especially problem solving and the analysis of decision alternatives leading to decisions.
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